**Bitumen Density**

The ratio of the weight of a substance to its volume is called its specific weight. However, density is the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume. Density is independent of the gravity acceleration, nevertheless, the specific weight is affected by the gravity acceleration of the earth.

Calculating the weight of bitumen inside the reservoirs and tankers in the road construction sites which is restored in terms of volume is among the main reasons to know the bitumen density. The bitumen density measurement test is carried out on the basis of the ASTM D70 standard. In fact, the specific weight (density) of each substance is an interface between its weight (mass) and volume. The bitumen density calculation is carried out on the basis of Archimedes’ principle.

In accordance with the definition of bitumen density, the ratio of the mass of a definite volume of bitumen to the water of the same volume at a known temperature.

Nickle Crucible and pycnometer are among the common methods in calculating the specific weight of bitumen (bitumen density).

The amount of bitumen mentioned in the related calculations means its weight, while bitumen is practically measured on the basis of its volume. On the other hand, considering that bitumen is always heated so that it can be used and its volume changes in the reservoir, it is important to know the coefficient of bitumen’s thermal expansion. Therefore, its specific weight is always considered at a definite temperature and on the basis of the test method.

The test method on the basis of the ASTM D70 standard is as follows:

The objective of this test is to determine the specific weight and density of special bitumens and semi-solid bituminous materials through the pycnometer method.

At first, fill a 600 mm beaker with distilled water and immerse the beaker into a water bath, i.e. the top of the beaker must be above the water level in the bath. Dry the pycnometer and weight with the precision of 1 mg and write down the number. Take the beaker out of the bath and fill the pycnometer with distilled water and place its lid loosely on the pycnometer. Then, put the pycnometer inside the beaker and close its lid. Let the pycnometer be filled with water and the extra water come out of the hole on top of it. Take out the pycnometer filled with water from the beaker and dry it. Then, weight it and write down the number. Empty the pycnometer and dry it. Fill three-quarters of the pycnometer volume with the sample. Afterward, weight it after cooling, and write down the weight. Finally, place the pycnometer containing the sample inside the beaker and let its remaining volume to be filled with distilled water. Afterward, take out the pycnometer from the beaker, dry it, weight it using a scale. Use the standard formula of this test for calculating its density and calculate the density.

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